In 1845 protectionism expired to birth the income tax.

…The budget of 1842 reduced the tariff on some 750 articles, and three years later Peel reduced tariffs still more. Duties on raw materials were mostly abolished and those on manufactured articles were consolidated at a general level of 10 per cent. In these ways the burden of revenue was moved from trade to ordinary … More In 1845 protectionism expired to birth the income tax.


System is a newer term denoting something like a social compact that obstructs freedom, perhaps the freedom to be a member of the system. It is neither black, white nor any other colour. Its members, though individually not wanting to be seen, act in unison by silent, perhaps, fearful submission. Its most visible public groupings, … More System

Housing Capital

Temples fashioned by artful engineers housed gods in architectural splendor And treasure, to keep thieves in awe. Banks, temples to Pluto,  give way to institutions made out of treasure.

Rescheduling Doomsday

I remember when I had a disagreement with a neighbour about a doomsday prediction several years back, probably December. When I told him I hadn’t heard about it he wondered whether I’d been listening to the news. I was reminded of that incident last week when I saw online articles about September 23, 2017 that … More Rescheduling Doomsday

Les Changeant/Prenant la route du haut

The boss, “the man”,  knows the language of descent. Anger thrown at the Godless is now directed at the “far right”-“white supremicists” ,”racists”, “sexists” socialist – proletariat enemies of the virtuous, bourgeois – middle class.   “The idea is to take the high road — avoiding any direct reference to Trump — by airing an … More Les Changeant/Prenant la route du haut